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Glossary

The SI definition, a prefix used to form decimal submultiples of the SI unit "meter", designating a factor of 10-9 denoted by the symbol "n".
Nanoceramics/nanocomposite are defined as novel bulk materials or coating with microstructural architecture, characterized by at least one of the ceramic phases having length scale between 1 and 100 nm. The major drive for wider interest in nanoceramics and its composites has been the fact that one can potentially achieve better and some unusual material properties by manipulating length scale in the nano range.
Clusters and crystals at the nanometer scale offer unique electrical, optical, and magnetic properties that are related to their quantum size effect. A nanocluster could contain several tens to thousands of atoms or molecules, and the formation of well-ordered and uniform size metal or semiconductor nanoclusters has been visualized by scanning tunneling microscopy.
Polymer/inorganic nanocomposites are composed of two or more physically distinct components with one or more average dimensions smaller than 100nm. From the structural point of view, the role of inorganic filler, usually as particles or fibres, is to provide intrinsic strength and stiffness while the polymer matrix can adhere to and bind the inorganic component so that forces applied to the composite are transmitted evenly to the filler.
Molecular-sized solids formed with a repeating, 3D pattern of atoms or molecules with an equal distance between each part. Nanocrystals are aggregates of anywhere from a few hundred to tens of thousands of atoms that combine into a crystalline form of matter known as a `cluster`. Typically around 10nm in diameter, nanocrystals are larger than molecules but smaller than bulk solids and therefore frequently exhibit physical and chemical properties somewhere in-between. Nanocrystals are believed to have potential in optical electronics because of their ability to change the wavelength of light.
Nanofibers are fibers measured in nanometers. The size of nanofibers is just a 34 atoms thick with diameters of 50500nm.
Nanofluids are engineered colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles (1-100 nm) in a base fluid. Common base fluids include water and organic liquids. Nanoparticles are typically made of chemically stable metals, metal oxides or carbon in various forms. The size of the nanoparticles imparts some unique characteristics to these fluids, including greatly enhanced energy, momentum and mass transfer, as well as reduced tendency for sedimentation and erosion of the containing surfaces. Nanofluids are being investigated for numerous applications, including cooling, manufacturing, chemical and pharmaceutical processes, medical treatments, cosmetics, etc.
Method where indentor is pressed into surface to a maximum depth of 100 nm with continuous monitoring of the indentation force and resultant indentor penetration enabling the determination of local mechanical properties.
Nanolithography refers to the fabrication of nanometer-scale structures, meaning patterns with at least one lateral dimension between the size of an individual atom and approximately 100 nm. Nanolithography is used during the fabrication of leading-edge semiconductor integrated circuits or nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).
Material having one or more external dimensions in the nanoscale or which is nanostructured.
Particle with one or more dimensions at the nanoscale.
Size range from approximately 1 nm to 100 nm.
Possessing a structure comprising contiguous elements with one or more dimension in the nanoscale but excluding any primary atomic or molecular structure.
Possessing a structure comprising contiguous elements with one or more dimension in the nanoscale but excluding any primary atomic or molecular structure.
A term referring to a wide range of technologies that measure, manipulate, or incorporate materials and/or features with at least one dimension between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers (nm). Such applications exploit the properties, distinct from bulk/macroscopic systems, of nanoscale components.
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